hand

Trigger finger, or stenosing tenosynovitis, is a prevalent hand condition that affects individuals of all ages and backgrounds, causing discomfort, reduced dexterity, and impeded movement in affected fingers. This condition occurs when the protective sheath surrounding the tendons in the fingers becomes inflamed or narrowed, leading to difficulty in tendon movement and potentially causing the finger to become locked in a flexed position.

At North Florida Hand and Wrist, our experienced hand and wrist surgeons, Dr. Richard D. Curtis and Dr. Jose Baez, are dedicated to providing top-tier care to those afflicted with trigger finger and various other hand and wrist ailments. Our state-of-the-art facility boasts the latest diagnostic tools, treatment methods, and a team of skilled practitioners committed to easing any hand or wrist discomfort you may experience. Ultimately, our goal is to restore our patients’ hand functionality and enable them to resume their everyday activities without pain or limitation.

In this comprehensive article, we will delve into the physiology of trigger finger, discuss the factors that may contribute to its development, and explore the cutting-edge treatments accessible at North Florida Hand and Wrist. By equipping yourself with a thorough understanding of trigger finger, you can make informed decisions regarding your hand and wrist health and take appropriate action to prevent and address the condition. If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms suggestive of trigger finger, our expert team is here to provide a detailed evaluation and personalized treatment strategy tailored specifically to your needs.

Understanding the Physiology of Trigger Finger

To better comprehend trigger finger and its implications, let’s break down the affected structures within the hand:

  1. Tendons: These fibrous cords connect muscle to bone, facilitating movement. In the fingers, the tendons help bend and straighten the digits.
  2. Tendon sheath: A protective casing, the tendon sheath surrounds the tendon, providing lubrication and ensuring smooth movement.
  3. A1 pulley: A critical component of the tendon sheath, the A1 pulley acts as a tunnel, guiding the tendon through the base of the finger, and allowing it to glide smoothly.

Trigger finger occurs when inflammation or narrowing within the tendon sheath impedes tendon movement, causing the tendon to catch or become stuck, resulting in the finger locking in a bent position.

Factors Contributing to the Development of Trigger Finger

Several risk factors can increase the likelihood of developing trigger finger:

  1. Repeated finger use: Occupations or hobbies requiring prolonged, repetitive finger motions may contribute to the onset of trigger finger.
  2. Medical conditions: Conditions, such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, or hypothyroidism, can increase the risk of developing trigger finger.
  3. Age and gender: Trigger finger commonly affects adults between 40 and 60 years of age, and is more prevalent in women than men.
  4. Hand overuse: Engaging in activities that place excessive pressure on the palm, such as gripping tools or equipment for long periods, may lead to trigger finger.

Symptoms and Warning Signs of Trigger Finger

Recognizing the hallmark signs of trigger finger can facilitate timely diagnosis and treatment, preventing further complications. Key symptoms include:

  1. Finger stiffness and locking: The affected finger may become stiff and experience difficult movement, with the sensation of “catching” or “locking” in a bent position.
  2. Pain and tenderness: Discomfort often occurs at the base of the affected finger, even extending to the palm.
  3. Nodule formation: A tender, firm lump may form at the base of the finger, representing the inflamed tendon.
  4. Morning symptoms: Trigger finger symptoms often present or worsen upon waking and can improve throughout the day.

Conservative Treatment Approaches for Trigger Finger

Mild to moderate cases of trigger finger can often be addressed through non-surgical interventions:

  1. Rest and activity modification: Reducing activities that involve repetitive finger use or gripping may help alleviate symptoms.
  2. Assistive devices: Splinting the affected finger in an extended position, particularly at night, can help alleviate pressure on the tendon.
  3. Over-the-counter medications: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can provide temporary pain relief and reduce inflammation.
  4. Gentle exercises and stretches: Targeted hand exercises and stretches can help maintain finger mobility, flexibility, and range of motion.

Cutting-Edge Treatment Options for Trigger Finger

In cases where conservative treatments fail to provide relief or when symptoms persist or worsen, advanced treatments are available:

  1. Corticosteroid injections: Administered directly at the base of the affected finger, corticosteroid injections can help reduce inflammation, providing temporary symptom relief for trigger finger.
  2. Percutaneous trigger finger release: Under ultrasound guidance, a needle is inserted through the skin to release the A1 pulley, allowing the tendon to move freely and resolving symptoms.
  3. Surgical trigger finger release: For severe or unresponsive cases, an outpatient surgical procedure known as open trigger finger release can be performed at North Florida Hand and Wrist. This procedure involves making a small incision at the base of the finger to release the A1 pulley, effectively alleviating pressure on the tendon.

Conclusion

Trigger finger is a common hand condition that, if left untreated, can significantly affect an individual’s ability to perform daily tasks and maintain an active lifestyle. By familiarizing yourself with the factors contributing to its development, as well as the signs and symptoms, you can take proactive measures to preserve your hand and wrist health. 

The dedicated team at North Florida Hand and Wrist is committed to providing personalized, state-of-the-art treatment options for those affected by trigger finger. If you are experiencing symptoms consistent with the condition, contact our expert staff to schedule a comprehensive evaluation with our hand and finger doctor and receive the most appropriate treatment plan designed to meet your unique needs.